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What news in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes was presented at EASD 2018?

The annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) took place this year in Berlin, Germany. The present text offers a selection of topics relevant for the field of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) discussed during that meeting.

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Topics: The Science behind Diabetes, Clinical Trial Methods, Diabetes Technology

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Nov 6, 2018 5:09:00 PM
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Cardiovascular endpoints in trials with glucose-lowering medications

Cardiovascular (CV) events are the main cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke are the macrovascular complications responsible for the high mortality in this collective of patients (1). The molecular mechanisms occurring in insulin resistant subjects contribute directly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, independently of the concomitant metabolic abnormalities (2). Improvements in HbA1c alone take years if not decades to impact the CV risk profile (3), meaning that glycaemic control alone is of poor utility to demonstrate reduced mortality of diabetes patients in short-term clinical trials. For all these reasons, developing glucose-lowering drugs that tackle the high CV risk is of interest for the medical community.  

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Topics: Clinical Trials in Diabetes

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Jun 20, 2018 4:21:00 PM
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Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors: is there hope for renal protection?

Despite treatments becoming more effective and despite more adequate control of the risk factors (e.g. smoking, inadequate glycaemic control or hypertension), patients with diabetes continue having increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1). It is estimated that diabetic nephropathy affects approximately 30% of subjects with diabetes, who could eventually develop end-stage renal disease (2) resulting in a significant negative impact on life quality and life expectancy.

The sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been intensively investigated in the previous years due to their mechanism of action involving renal excretion of glucose. Large studies have shown the potential of these drugs to improve glycaemic control and also to improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes (3, 4). The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (3) and the CANVAS program (4) evaluated the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in reducing the occurrence of CV endpoints. Both trials had secondary endpoints to evaluate the progression of nephropathy in the subjects studied.

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Topics: The Science behind Diabetes, Clinical Trials in Diabetes

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Nov 17, 2017 5:00:00 PM
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Novelties in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes presented at the EASD 2017

The annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) took place this year in the city of Lisbon. Interesting novelties in the field of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and new evidence for the existing medications were presented during the conference, including 3 oral presentations and several posters from Profil.

If you missed EASD this year or could not attend all the presentations you were interested in, here you find a short overview of some of the relevant data presented related to body weight reduction, new substances to treat type 2 diabetes and the effect of T2DM medications on cardiovascular risk outcomes.

We hope you enjoy it.

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Topics: The Science behind Diabetes

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Oct 12, 2017 5:09:00 PM
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How do SGLT2 inhibitors improve cardiovascular outcomes?

Cardiovascular (CV) events are the main cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Myocardial infarction and stroke are the macrovascular complications responsible for the high mortality in this collective of patients. The molecular mechanisms occurring in insulin resistant subjects (i.e. impaired insulin signalling through the phosphoinositol-3 kinase pathway with intact signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway) directly contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, independent of the concomitant metabolic abnormalities [1]. However, improvements in HbA1c take decades to impact CV risk profile [2], and as a matter of fact, the focus of several phase III studies investigating antidiabetic drugs is moving from the glucose control to the CV risk.

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Topics: Clinical Trials in Diabetes

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Mar 31, 2017 5:00:00 PM
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Medications for type 2 diabetes: a short historical perspective

The history of antidiabetic medications has a great deal of importance due to the so-called ‘epidemic of the century’, i.e. diabetes mellitus [1]. The industrialised civilisation has a negative impact on diet and lifestyle, and as a consequence, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a serious public health issue.

The classic symptoms of diabetes were already described in the ancient Egypt, and at that time the first attempts to treat the symptoms took place. At that moment mixtures of bird pond, elderberry, fibres from plants, milk, beer, flowers and green dates were used. Remarkably, at the beginning of the 20th century there were still no therapeutic options sufficiently successful to treat diabetes. The discovery of insulin was undoubtedly a breakthrough in the history of diabetes, saving thousands of patients and also improving their life quality, particularly of those with type 1 diabetes. With the increasing wealth and the associated growing food supply in the industrialised countries, the incidence of type 2 diabetes augmented. Consequently, the development of drugs targeting the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes, such as insulin resistance and beta-cell failure, became a topic of interest for pharmacological intervention.

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Topics: The Science behind Diabetes

Posted by Dr. Jorge Arrubla on Sep 7, 2016 5:00:00 PM
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